Sign in


AEBISCHER, N J, DAVEY, P D and KINGDON, N G (2011). National gamebag census: mammal trends to 2009. Fordingbridge.

AGIRRE-MENDI, P T, GARCIA-MUDARRA, J L, JUSTE, J, et al (2004). Presence of Myotis alcathoe Helversen and Heller, 2001 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Iberian Peninsula. Acta Chiropterologica 6 (1), 49-57.

AHLEN, I, BAAGØE, H, BACH, L (2009). Behavior of Scandinavian bats during migration and foraging at sea. Journal of mammalogy 90 (6), 1318–1323.

ALTRINGHAM, J (2003). British bats. London.

ANDERSON, S (1990). Seals. London.

ANTHONY, H E (1928). Field book of North American mammals. New York.

APPERLEY, N W (1924). North country hunting half a century ago. Darlington.

APPERLEY, N W (1926). A hunting diary. London.

ARMITAGE, V L (2001). Influences of habitat and mammal predation upon the spatial distribution of the Atlantic white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes L.). PhD Thesis, Newcastle University.

ARNOLD, E N and BURTON, J A (1978). Reptiles and amphibians of Britain and Europe.

ARNOLD, H R (1978). Provisional atlas of the mammals of the British Isles. Abbot’s Ripton.

ARNOLD, H R (1993). Atlas of mammals in Britain. London.

ASHBY, K R (1965) in VALENTINE D H (editor). The Natural History of Upper Teesdale.

AUSTIN, D (2007). Acts of perception. A study of Barnard Castle in Teesdale. Volume 2.

AVERY, M I (1991) in CORBET, G B and HARRIS, S (editors).  Pipistrellus pipistrellus. The handbook of British mammals. London.

BAKER, S J (1990). Escaped exotic mammals in Britain. Mammal Review 20 (2/3), 75-96.

BAKER, K H (2011). Population genetic history of the British roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and its implications for diversity and fitness. PhD Thesis, Durham University. (Accessed at in 2012).

BAKER, P J, FUNK, S M, BRUFORD, M W. and HARRIS, S (2004). Polygynandry in a red fox population: implications for the evolution of group living in canids? Behavioural ecology 15, 766-778.

BAKER, P, HARRIS, S and WHITE, P C L (2006). After the hunt – the future for foxes in Britain. London.

BANKS, B (1989). Alpine Newts in north-east England. Herpetological Bulletin 30, 4–5.

BARLOW, K E and JONES, G (1999). Roosts, echolocation calls and wing morphology of two phonic types of Pipistrellus pipistrellus. Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 64, 257–268.

BARNES, R F W and TAPPER S C (1986). Consequences of the myxomatosis epidemic in Britain’s Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) population on the numbers of Brown Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas). Mammal Review 16 (3/4), 111-116.

BARRETO, G R, RUSHTON, S.P., STRACHAN, R, and MACDONALD, D W (1998). The role of habitat and Mink predation in determining the status and distribution of Water Voles in England. Animal Conservation 1, 129-137.

BARRETT, E M, DEAVILLE, R, BURLAND, T M, BRUFORD, M W, JONES, G, RACEY, P A, WAYNE, R K (1997). DNA answers the call of Pipistrelle bat species. Nature 387, 138–139.

BARRETT-HAMILTON, G E H and HINTON M A C (1910-1921). A history of British mammals. London.

BAT CONSERVATION TRUST (2012). The National Bat Monitoring Programme – annual report 2011. London.

BATESON, E (1893). A History of Northumberland. Volume I: the parish of Bamburgh with the chapelry of Belford. Newcastle.

BEEBEE, T (2007). Thirty years of garden ponds. Herpetological Bulletin 99, 23–28.

BEEBEE, T J C and GRIFFITHS, R A (2000). Amphibians and reptiles. A natural history of the British Herpetofauna. London.

BELL, T (1874). A history of British quadrupeds, including the Cetacea. London.

BENTLEY, E W (1959). The distribution and status of Rattus rattus L. in the United Kingdom in 1951 and 1956. Journal of Animal Ecology 28, 299-308.

BENTLEY, E W (1964). Further loss of ground by Rattus rattus L. in the United Kingdom during 1956- 61. Journal of Animal Ecology 33 (2), 371-373.

BIRKS, J and MESSENGER, J (2010). Evidence of Pine Martens in England and Wales, 1996-2007. London.

BIRKS, J D S (2008). The polecat survey of Britain 2004-2006: A report on the Polecat’s distribution status and conservation. Ledbury.

BIRKS, J D S and KITCHENER, A C (editors) (1999). The distribution and status of the Polecat Mustela putorius in Britain in the 1990s. London.

BIRKS, J D S and LINN, I J (1982). Studies of home range of the feral Mink, Mustela vison. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 49, 231-257.

BIRKS, J D S (1981). Home range and territorial behaviour of feral Mink (Mustela vison Schreber) in Devon. Exeter.

BLACKBURN, K B (1952. The dating of a deposit containing an Elk skeleton at Neasham, near Darlington. New Phytologist 51, 364-377.

BOLAM, G (1917). Some of our reptiles and amphibians and how to know them. Vasculum 3, 35-40.

BOLAM, G (1920). Vasculum 6.

BOLAM, G (1921). Unpublished diary held in the archives of the Natural History Society of Northumbria.

BOLAM, G (1926). Bats. Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists Field Club 6 (New series).

BOLAM, G (1915). Newts. Vasculum 1 (1).

BOLAM, G (1934). Mammal records of Northumberland c.1878-1934. Unpublished notes held in the archives of the Natural History Society of Northumbria, archive reference: NEWHM.1998. H180.

BOND, I (2008). Tees Valley bat news, No 11.

BOND, I (2009). March of the Muntjac – news from the frontline! Mammal news. No 154.

BOND, I (2010). The Harvest Mouse in North-East England. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria 70, 137-148.

BOND, I (2010. The path of the panther: Northumbrian big cat diaries. Kilmaurs.

BOND, I and HAYCOCK, G (2008). The Alpine Newt in northern England. Herpetological bulletin 104, 4-6.

BONNER, W N and HICKLING, G (1971). Seals of the Farne Islands, 1971. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria 17 (4), 141-143.

BOONMAN, M (2000). Roost selection by Noctules (Nyctalus noctula) and Daubenton’s bats (Myotis daubentonii). Journal of Zoology 251, 385-389.

BOWIE, K and DURKIN, J (1995). Red-eared Terrapins. Vasculum 81 (1).

BRAND, J (1789). The history and antiquities of the town and county of Newcastle upon Tyne. Volume 2. London.

BRERETON, T, MACLEOD, C, KITCHING, M, TAIT, A, STEEL, D, QUIGLEY, M and SCOTT, C (2010). Importance of the Farne Deeps and surrounding waters off the Northumberland coast for White-beaked Dolphin and other cetaceans and seabirds of conservation concern. Report commissioned by Natural England. (Accessed at

BRITISH DEER SOCIETY WEBSITE. (URL: accessed 30 August 2012).

BRITISH MARINE LIFE STUDY SOCIETY (2012). Sea Turtles. (Accessed at in 2012).


BROCKIE, W (1886). Legends and Superstitions of Durham. Sunderland.

BROOM, J C (1951). Leptospirosis in England and Wales. British medical journal. London.

BROWN, R W (1985) in DELANY M J (editor). Yorkshire mammals. Bradford.

BRUEMMER, C M, RUSHTON, S P, GURNELL, J, LURZ, P W W, NETTLETON, P, SAINSBURY, A W, DUFF, J P, GILRAY, J and MCINNES, C J (2010). Epidemiology of squirrelpox virus in Grey Squirrels in the UK. Epidemiology and Infection 138, 941-950.

BUCKLAND, F T (1858). Curiosities of natural history. Wakefield.

BULLOCK, D J (1982). Aspects of the ecology of feral goats (Capra domestic) in the southern uplands. PhD Thesis, Durham University.

BURTHE, S, SEARLE, K R, HALL, S J G, THACKERAY, S J and WANLESS, S (2011). Demographic consequences of increased winter births in a large seasonally breeding mammal (Bos taurus) in response to climate change. Journal of Animal Ecology 80, 1134-1144.

BURTON, M (1968). Wild animals of the British Isles. London.

CADE, J (1785). Conjectures concerning some undescribed Roman roads and other antiquities in the county of Durham. Archaeologia: or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity 7, 74-81.

CANNING, S J (2007). Cetacean distribution and habitat use along the east coast of Scotland. PhD Thesis, University of Aberdeen.

CANNING, S J, SANTOS, M B, REID, R J, EVANS, P G H, SABIN, R C, BAILEY, N and PIERCE, G J (2008). Seasonal distribution of white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) in UK waters with new information on diet and habitat use. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 88, 1159-1166.

CAPES, D (2015). Harvest Mice in the North York Moors National Park. Imprint, 41, 20-24.

CARNE, P (2000). Deer of Britain and Ireland: their origins and distribution. Shrewsbury.

CARNELL, S (2010). Hare. London.

CARTER, P and CHURCHFIELD, S (2006). The Water Shrew handbook. London.

CARWARDINE, M (1995). Whales, dolphins and porpoises. London.

CARWARDINE, M (2003). Guide to Whalewatching.

CGOECOLOGY.COM (2012). New research into prehistoric pond terrapins. (Accessed at in 2012).

CHANIN, P (1981). Feral Mink – natural history movements and control. Nature in Devon, 2.

CHAPMAN, N (1991). Deer. London.

CHAPMAN, N and HARRIS, S, (1996). Muntjac. Somerset.

CHAPMAN, A (1924). The Borders and beyond. London.

CHAPMAN, N G, HARRIS, S and STANFORD, A (1994). Reeves’ Muntjac Muntiacus reevesi in Britain: their history, spread, habitat selection, and the role of human intervention in accelerating their dispersal. Mammal Review 24, 113-160.

CHURCHFIELD, S (1984). An investigation of the population ecology of syntopic shrews inhabiting water-cress beds. Journal of Zoology 204, 229-240.

CHURCHFIELD, S (1986). Shrews. Oswestry.

CHURCHFIELD, S (1998). Habitat use by water shrews, the smallest of amphibious mammals. Zoological Society of London symposium 71, 49-68.

CLARK, A (1981). The real Alice. London.

CLARK, M (1988). Badgers. London.

CLARK, M (2001) The mammals, amphibians and reptiles of Hertfordshire.

CLARKE, W E and ROEBUCK, W D (1881). A handbook of the vertebrate fauna of Yorkshire. London.

CORBET, G B (1971). Provisional distribution maps of British Mammals. Mammal review 1, (4/5).

CORBET, G B (1986). Relationships and origins of the European lagomorphs. Mammal review 16, 106-110.

CORBET, G B and HARRIS, S (1991). The handbook of British mammals. 3rd Edition. Oxford.

CORBET, G B and SOUTHERN, H N (editors) (1977). The handbook of British mammals. 2nd Edition. London.

COULT, T and O’HARA, K (2002). The Otters return: a review of the Northumbrian Otters and Rivers Project, 1999-2002.

COULT, T (1998). The past and present distribution of the Otter (Lutra lutra) on the River Wear in County Durham; With an analysis of Otter diet and a suggested management plan for otter conservation on the River Wear. MSc Thesis, Durham University.

COULT, T (2001). Notes on the historical distribution of the Dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) in Northumberland and Durham. Vasculum 86 (2), 40-44.

COULT, T (2010). Some observations on an Otter Lutra lutra breeding site on the River Browney in County Durham. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria 70 (2).

COULT, T (2012). Notes on the Grass Snake Natrix natrix in the Derwent Valley, County Durham. Herpetological Bulletin 119, 29.

COWEN, G A (1955). The Badger in Northumberland and Durham: its number and distribution, past and present. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne 11 (4).

COWEN, G A (1975). Mice, voles and shrews. Roebuck 10.

COWEN, G A, THE VISCOUNT RIDLEY and TEGNER, H S (1965). Roe Deer in Northumberland and Durham. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne. 15 (3).

COWEN, G.A (1955). The braes of Derwent Hunt. Gateshead.

CRAIK, C (1997). Long term effects of North American Mink Mustela vison on seabirds in western Scotland. Bird study 44, 303-309.

CRAIK, J C A (1995). Effects of North American Mink on the breeding success of terns and smaller gulls in west Scotland. Seabird 17, 3-11.

CRAMP, R (2006). Wearmouth and Jarrow monastic sites, Volume 2. Swindon.

CRAWFORD, A (2010). Fifth Otter survey of England, 2009-2010. Bristol.

DAVIDSON-WATTS, I, WALLS, S and JONES G (2006). Differential habitat selection by Pipistrellus pipistrellus and Pipistrellus pygmaeus identifies distinct conservation needs for cryptic species of echolocating bats. Biological conservation 133, 118-127.

DAVIES, W (1880) On some bones of the Lynx from Teesdale, obtained by Mr James Backhouse of York. Geological magazine 7, 346-349.

DAVIS, P (1979). The results of a squirrel distribution survey in North East England 1977/1978. Vasculum 64 (2).

DAVIS, P (1986). The distribution of the Water Vole Arvicola terrestris in North East England. Vasculum 71 (3).

DELANY, M.J (editor) (1985). Yorkshire Mammals. Bradford.

DEN HERTOG, J C and VAN NIERUP, M M (1984). A study of the gut contents of six Leathery Turtles. Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 209, 1-36.


DIETZ, C, VON HELVERSEN, O and NILL, D (2009). Bats of Britain, Europe and North West Africa. London.

DOBSON, A (2000). The decline of the Common Dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) in Northumberland and Durham between 1864-2000. BSc Thesis, Northumbria University.

DOBSON, J (2001). The Harvest Mouse in Essex. (Accessed at in 2012).

DUNSTONE, N (1993). The Mink. London.

DUNSTONE, N and BIRKS, J D S (1983). Activity budget and habitat usage by coastal living Mink (Mustela vison Schreber). Acta Zoologica Fennica 174, 189-191.

DURHAM BAT GROUP (1999). Durham bat news, November 1999.

DURKIN, J (2006). Grass Snakes at Gibside – Management Plan. Unpublished National Trust report.

DURKIN, J (2010A). The amphibian atlas of North East England. (Accessed at in 2012).

DURKIN, J (2010B). The reptile atlas of North East England. (Accessed at in 2012).

E3 ECOLOGY and DURKIN, J L (2006). A baseline survey of Water Vole distribution and abundance in the Northumbria area and Tees catchment 2006. Report for the Environment Agency.

ELLIOT (1862). Further discoveries in Heathery Burn Cave, near Stanhope. Geologist 5, 167-171.

ELLIOT (1862). On the discovery of human and animal bones in Heathery Burn Cave, near Stanhope. Geologist 5, 34-37.

EMBLETON, D (1854). On the two species of rat in England. Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists Field Club 2.

EMBLETON, D (1884). Black Rat at Newcastle. The Naturalist 10, 128.

ENGLISH NATURE (2004). European Species and Habitats Directives.

EVANS S (2008). Posting #7990 on BirdForum – Durham Birding thread. (Accessed at

EVANS, P G H (1992). Status review of cetaceans in British and Irish waters. London.

FABER, H G (1879). The Field, 2 August 1879.

FAIRNELL, E H (2003). The utilisation of fur-bearing animals in the British Isles: a zooarchaeological hunt for data. MSc Thesis, University of York.

FAWCETT, J W (1889). Newcastle weekly chronicle, 14 December 1889.

FAWCETT, J W (1900). Reptiles and amphibians of the County of Durham. The Naturalist 517, 36.

FAWCETT, J W (1911). A history of the parish of Dipton, in the county and diocese of Durham. Privately published.

FERRERAS, P and MACDONALD, D W (1999). The impact of American Mink Mustela vison on water birds in the upper Thames. Journal of Applied Ecology 36, 701-708.

FERRYHILL LOCAL HISTORY SOCIETY. (URL: accessed 26 August 2012).

FLINTOFF, R J (1935). Stoats and weasels, brown and white. North Western Naturalist 10, 214-229.

FLOWERDEW, J (1993). Mice and voles. London.

FLUX, J E C and ANGERMANN, R (1990). The hares and jackrabbits, in CHAPMAN, J A and FLUX, J E C (editors) Rabbits, hares and pikas: status survey and conservation action plan. Switzerland.

FORESTRY COMMISSION. (URL: accessed 30 August 2012).

FOSTER-SMITH, J (editor) (2000). The marine fauna and flora of the Cullercoats district. Volume 2. Sunderland.

FOWLER, J T (1898-1900). Extracts from the account rolls of the abbey of Durham, from the original Mss. Surtees Society 99, 100, 103. Durham.

FRANKIS, M P, DAVEY, P R and ANDERSON, G Q A (1997). Harp Seal: a new mammal for the Northumberland fauna. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria 57 (4), 239-241.

GARDNER, J (1921). Vasculum 7 (2), 91.

GEBBARD, J and BOGDANOWICZ, W (2004). Nyctalus noctula – Großer Abendsegler, in KRAPP, F (editor) Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas 4-II. Wiesbaden.

GENT, T and GIBSON, S (1998). The herpetofauna workers manual.

GIBSON, J (2005). Tees Seals Research Programme Monitoring Report No.17 (1989 – 2005). Redcar.

GIBSON, S (1869). The Wild Cat. The gentleman’s magazine (New Series) 3,755-756.

GILL, E L (1905) Mammals in PAGE, W (editor). Victoria history of the county of Durham. Volume 1. London.

GLISTER, E (2006). The changing distribution and habitat preferences of water voles (Arvicola terrestris) within the borough of Hartlepool. MSc Thesis, University of Sunderland.

GODDARD, R T (1926). Miscellanea. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle-Upon-Tyne. New Series 6, 240-241.

GODFREY, G (1962). Moles. London.

GODWIN, H (1951). American journal of science 249, 301-307.

GOUGH, M and HOOTON, A (2000). Mustelid update. Northumbria Mammal Group newsletter.

GOULDING, M (2003). Wild Boar in Britain. Suffolk.

GRAHAM, R (1993). A Border naturalist: The birds and wildlife of the Bewcastle Fells and the Gilsland Moors, 1930-1966. Carlisle.

GRAVES, J (1808). The history of Cleveland, in the North Riding of the county of York. Carlisle.

GREEN, D (1984). A study of the Great Crested Newt, Triturus cristatus, in Durham and Tyne and Wear, south. Durham.

GREEN, D (2001). Egg laying and larval development in Great Crested Newt. British Wildlife 12 (4), 252-255.

GREENWELL, W (1894). Antiquities of the Bronze Age found in the Heathery Burn cave, County Durham. Archaeologia: or miscellaneous tracts relating to Antiquity 54, 87-114.

GREY, J (1841). A view of the past and present state of agriculture in Northumberland. Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England 2, 151-192.

GRIFFITHS, R A (1995). The newts and salamanders of Europe. London.

GUGGISBERG, C A W (1975). Wild Cats of the world. Newton Abbot.

GURNELL, J and LURZ P W W (2012). Red Squirrel, pp 10-21 in CRESSWELL, W J, BIRKS, J D S, DEAN, M, PACHECO, M, TREWHELLA, W J, WELLS, D and WRAY, S (editors) UK BAP mammals: interim guidance for survey methodologies, impact assessment and mitigation. Southampton.

GURNELL, J, LURZ, P W W and WAUTERS, L (2012). Squirrels. Southampton.

GURNELL, J, LURZ, P W W, MCDONALD, R, and PEPPER, H (2009). Practical techniques for surveying and monitoring squirrels. Forestry Commission practice note 11. Surrey.

GURNELL, J, MCDONALD, R, LURZ, P W W (2011). Making Red Squirrels more visible: the use of baited visual counts to monitor populations. Mammal review 41, 244-250.

HALE, M L and LURZ, P W W (2003). Morphological changes in a British mammal as a result of introductions and changes in landscape management: the Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris). Journal of zoology 260, 159-167.

HALL, S J G (1989). Chillingham cattle: social and maintenance behaviour in an ungulate which breeds all year round. Animal Behaviour 38, 215-225.

HALL, S J G and HALL, J G (1988). Inbreeding and population dynamics of the Chillingham wild cattle (Bos taurus). Journal of zoology 216, 479-493.

HALL, S J G, FLETCHER, T J, GIDLOW, J R, INGHAM, B, SHEPHERD, A, SMITH, A, and WIDDOWS, A (2005). Management of the Chillingham Wild Cattle. Government Veterinary Journal 15, 4-11.

HALL, S J G, VINCE, M A, WALSER, E S and GARSON, P J (1988). Vocalisations of the Chillingham cattle. Behaviour 104, 78-104.

HALLIWELL, E C and MACDONALD, D W (1995). American Mink Mustela vison in the upper Thames catchment: relationships with selected prey species and den availability. Biological conservation 76, 51-56.

HARDY, J (1849). On the occurrence of the Wild Cat in Berwickshire. History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 2, 357-359.

HARDY, J (1860). On fossil antlers of the Roebuck and Gigantic Irish Elk, found at Coldingham, in 1859. History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 5, 206-207.

HARDY, J (1874). On the occurrence of the Wild Cat in the Border Districts. History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 7, 246-250.

HARRIS, S (1979). History, distribution, status and habitat requirements of the Harvest Mouse, Micromys minutus in Britain. Mammal review 9, 159-171.

HARRIS, S (1979). Secret Life of the Harvest Mouse. London.

HARRIS, S and YALDEN, D W (editors) (2008). Mammals of the British Isles: Handbook, 4th Edition. Southampton.

HARRIS, S, MORRIS, P, WRAY, S and YALDEN, D (1995). A review of British mammals: population estimates and conservation status of British mammals other than cetaceans. Peterborough.

HARRISON MATTHEWS, L (2009, first published 1952). British mammals. New Naturalist.

HARTING, J E (1880). British animals extinct within historic times. London.

HARTING, J E (1886). Beavers and their ways. The Zoologist, 3rd Series. 11.

HARTING, J E (1892). Vermin of the farm. London.

HELANDER, B and BIGNERT, A (1992). Harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) on the Swedish Baltic coast: population trends and reproduction. Ambio 21, 504-510.

HENDERSON A (1997). From coney to rabbit: the story of a managed coloniser. Naturalist 122, 101-121.

HETHERINGTON, D (2005). The feasibility of reintroducing the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) to Scotland. PhD Thesis, University of Aberdeen.

HETHERINGTON, D (2006). The Lynx in Britain’s past, present and future. ECOS 27.

HEWSON and YALDEN, D W (1993) in MORRIS, P A (editor). A red data book for British Mammals. London.

HICKLING, G (1962). Grey Seals and the Farne Islands. London.

HINTON, M A C (1920). Description of the rodent teeth of Mimomys from Castle Eden. Quarterly journal of the Geological Society of London 75, 201-203.

HODGSON, J (1832). A history of Northumberland in three parts. Part II 1,100.

HOLM, J (1987). Squirrels. London.

HOWSE, R (1861). Notes on the fossil remains of some recent and extinct Mammalia found in the counties of Northumberland and Durham. Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists Field Club 5, 111-121.

HOWSE, R (1890). Catalogue of local fossils in the museum of the Natural History Society. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne 10, 226-288.

HOWSE, R (1880). Preliminary note on the discovery of old sea-caves and a raised sea-beach at Whitburn Lizards. Miscellania. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne 7.

HOYT, E (1984). The whale watcher’s handbook. Ontario, Canada.

HUNTLEY, J P and STALLIBRASS, S (1995). Plant and vertebrate remains from archaeological sites in northern England. Research Report No. 4. Architectural and Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumberland. Durham.

HUTCHINGS, M R and HARRIS, S (1996). The current status of the Brown Hare Lepus timidus in Britain. Peterborough.

HUTCHINSON, J (1840). Durham fishes, reptiles and quadrupeds. Unpublished manuscript held in the archives of the Natural History Society of Northumbria, archive reference: NEWHM: 1996. H345.

HUTCHINSON, W (1823). History and antiquities of the county palatine of Durham. Volume 3. Durham.

HUTTERER, R, IVANOVA, T, MEYER-CORDS, C and RODRIGUES, L (2005). Bat migrations in Europe: a review of banding data and literature. Bonn.

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE EXPLORATION OF THE SEA (ICES) (2008). Status of small cetaceans and bycatch in European waters. ICES Advice 2008. Book 1.

JACKSON, N (1986). The Bowes bat and other vagrants. Durham Bat Group annual report.

JAMESON, H (2010). Cryptic Myotis species (Chiroptera; Vespertilionidae) in Northern England; a study of maternity roost ecology through habitat assessment and DNA analysis. MSc Thesis, University of Sunderland.

JEFFRIES, D J and CRITCHLEY, C H (1994). A new pine marten record for the North Yorkshire Moors, skull dimensions and confirmation of species. The Naturalist, No. 1011, 119.

JEHLE, R, THIESMEIER, B, and FOSTER, J (2011). The Crested Newt. Bielefeld, Germany.

JENKINSON, R D S (1983). The recent history of the Northern Lynx (Lynx lynx Linné) in the British Isles. Quaternary newsletter 41, 1-7.

JOHNSON, G A L (editor) (1995). Robson’s Geology of North East England. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria 56 (5), 226-391.

JOHNSON, G.A (1985) Mesolithic Hunters on Redburn Common. Vasculum 70 (3), 26-27.

JOHNSTON, S D (1974). Wild mink in Northumberland. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne, 41 (3).

JONES, G (1995). Flight performance, echolocation and foraging behaviour in Noctule bats Nyctalus noctula. Journal of zoology 237, 303-312.

JONES, G and PARIJS, S M van (1993). Bimodal echolocation in Pipistrelle bats: are cryptic species present? Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society B: biological sciences 251, 119-125.

JONES, G and RYDELL, J (1994). Foraging strategy and predation risk as factors influencing emergence time in echolocating bats. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society B: biological sciences 346, 445-455.

KERSLAKE, L (editor) (1998). Red data book for Northumberland. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria 58 (2).

KING, C (1989). The natural history of weasels and stoats. London.

KINRADE, V, EWALD, J and SMITH, A (2007). Distribution of Mountain Hares in Scotland. Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust Review.

KIRKBY, J W and BRADY, G S (1866). On human and other remains found in a cavern near the Ryhope Colliery. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne 1, 148-151.

LAIDLER, K (1980). Squirrels in Britain. Newton Abbot.

LANGLEY, P J W and YALDEN, D W (1977). The decline of the rarer carnivores in Great Britain during the nineteenth century. Mammal Review 7.

LANGTON T, BECKETT, C and FOSTER, J (2001). Great Crested Newt conservation handbook. (Accessed at 2012).

LANGTON, T (1989). Snakes and lizards. London.

LEATHERWOOD, S, CALDWELL, D K and WINN, H E (1976). Whales, dolphins and porpoises of the Western North Atlantic. Seattle, USA.

LEIGHTON, G R (1901). British serpents. London.

LENTON, E J, CHANIN, P R F and JEFFRIES, D J (1980). Otter survey of England 1977-79. London.

LEVER, C (1977). The naturalised animals of the British Isles. London.

LEVER, C (1979). The naturalised animals of the British Isles. London.

LEVER, C (1985). Naturalised mammals of the world. London.

LINDSTRÖM, E R, BRAINERD, S M, HELLDIN, J-O and OVERSKAUG, K (1995). Pine Marten–Red Fox interactions: a case of intraguild predation? Annales Zoologici Fennici 32, 123–130.

LISTER, A M (1984). The fossil record of Elk (Alces alces L.) in Britain. Quaternary newsletter 44, 1-7.

LOFTHOUSE, R (1887). The River Tees its marshes and their fauna, p 8 in DENISON ROEBUCK, W M and EAGLE CLARKE, W M (editors). The Naturalist. London.

LOFTHOUSE, R (1900). On the former occurrence of the Seal in the Tees estuary, and on the adjoining coast. Cleveland Naturalists Field Club record of proceedings 1, 87-89.

LOMAX, J (1910). Otter hunting diary:1829 to 1871, of the late James Lomax Esq. of Clayton Hall. Blackburn.

LONGSTAFFE, W H D (1854). The history and antiquities of the Parish of Darlington. Republished in 1973. Stockton.

LOVEGROVE, R (2007). Silent fields, the long decline of a nation’s wildlife. Oxford.

LUMPKINS and SEIDENSTICKER, J (2011). Rabbits: the animal answer guide. Baltimore.

LUNDY, M, MONTGOMERY, I and RUSS, J (2010). Climate change-linked range expansion of Nathusius’ Pipistrelle bat, Pipistrellus nathusii (Keyserling and Blasius, 1839). Journal of Biogeography 37, 2232–2242.

LUNN, A G (2004). Northumberland. New Naturalist. London.

MACGREGOR, A A (1955). The Pied Piper. Letter to the editor, Folk-Lore. 66 (4), 432.

MACLEOD, C D, WEIR, C R, PIERPOINT, C and HARLAND, E J (2007). The habitat preferences of marine mammals west of Scotland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87, 157-164.

MACLEOD, C D, WEIR, C R, SANTOS, M B and DUNN, T E (2008). Temperature-based summer habitat partitioning between White-beaked and Common Dolphins around the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 88, 1193-1198.

MALLON, D, WHEELER, P, WHITELEY, D and YALDEN, D W (2003). Mountain Hares in the Peak District. British Wildlife 15, 110-116.

MARTIN, M T (editor) (1911). The Percy Chartulary. Surtees Society 117. Durham.

MASON, D (2012). Binchester after Rome. Continuity or change in the imperial twilight. Current Archaeology 263, 28-35.

MATHESON, C (1939). A survey of the status of Rattus rattus and its subspecies in the seaports of Great Britain and Ireland. Journal of Animal Ecology 8, 76-93.

MATTHEWS, L H (1982). Mammals in the British Isles. London.

MCDONALD, R A and HARRIS, S (1998). Stoats and weasels. London.

MCDOUGALL, P (1975). The feral goats of Kielderhead Moor. Journal of Zoological Society of London 176, 215-246.

MCROBIE, H (2012). Black Squirrels. Genetics and distribution. Quarterly Journal of Forestry. April 2012.

MEE, A (1922). The children’s encyclopaedia. Volume 2.

MEEK, A (1911). Report of the 1910 excavations at Corstopitum. Animal remains. Archaeologia aeliana, 3rd series 7, 220-267.

MENNELL, H T and PERKINS, V R (1864). A catalogue of the mammalia of Northumberland and Durham. Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists’ Field Club. 6.

MIDDLETON, A D (1930). The ecology of the American Grey Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin) in the British Isles. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 3, 804.

MIDDLETON, A D (1931). The Grey Squirrel. London.

MIDDLETON, R M (1879). Distribution of the Black Rat. Nature 19, 460.

MILBURN, C (1900) in HAWELL, J (editor). Cleveland Naturalists’ Field Club, record of proceedings, 1899-1900. 1 (3).

MILLAIS, J G (1906). The mammals of Great Britain and Ireland. London.

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES AND FOOD, (MAFF) (1962). The control of Grey Squirrels.

MINTER, R (2011). Big cats: facing Britain’s wild predators. Dunbeath.

MORRIS, P (2006). The new Hedgehog book. London.

MYSTERIOUS BRITAIN WEBSITE (URL: accessed 26 August 2012).


NATURAL ENGLAND (2011). Rabbits: management options for preventing damage. Technical Information Note TIN003. (Accessed at in 2012).

NATURAL ENGLAND (2012). The Red Fox in rural areas: Natural England species information note SIN004. 3rd Edition. (Accessed at on 8 April 2012).

NATURE CONSERVANCY COUNCIL (1998). Guidelines for the selection of biological SSSIs.

NEAL, E (1986). The natural history of Badgers. England.

NEAL, E and CHEESEMAN, C (1996). Badgers. Cambridge.

NEASHAM, G (1893). North Country sketches. Durham.

NIERMANN, N, BIEDERMANN, M, BOGDANOWICZ, W, et al (2007). Biogeography of the recently described Myotis alcathoe, von Helversen and Heller, 2001. Acta Chiropterologica 9 (2), 361-378.

NORTH PENNINES AONB PARTNERSHIP (2011) Water Voles in the North Pennines: Where they can be found, what they need to survive and how you can help. (Accessed at in 2012).

NORTHERN RED SQUIRRELS (2012). Newsletter Issue 8 Winter 2011/2012. (Accessed at in 2012).

O’CONNOR, T and SYKES, N (2010). Extinctions and invasions. A social history of the British fauna. Oxford.

O’HARA, K (2005). The status of the Otter in Northumberland from 1991-2003. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria 64 (3).

O’HARA, K (2005). The status of the Water Vole (Arvicola terrestris) in the Borough of North Tyneside: a survey for presence and absence, summer 2002. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria 64,185-94.

OXFORD, G, MORTIMER, J, HANSON, A, PICKLES, S and THOMPSON, M (2007). Preliminary mapping of terrestrial mammal distributions in North Yorkshire 1996-2006. Naturalist 132, 73-98.

PAGE, W (editor) (1905. Reprint 1968). The Victoria history of the county of Durham. London.

PAISLEY, T (1964). Darlington and Stockton Times, 15 August 1964.

PARKER, K (2002). The changing distribution and habitat preferences of Water Voles within Hartlepool. MSc Thesis, University of Sunderland.

PARSONS, K N and JONES, G (2003). Dispersion and habitat use by Myotis daubentonii and Myotis nattereri during the swarming season: implications for conservation. Animal conservation 6, 283-290.

PATTON, V, EWALD, J, SMITH, A, NEWEY, S, JASON, G, THIRGOOD, S and RAYNOR, R (2010). Distribution of Mountain Hares Lepus timidus in Scotland: results from a questionnaire. Mammal review 40 (4), 313-326.

PEASE, A E (1898). The Badger a monograph. London.

PEOPLE’S TRUST FOR ENDANGERED SPECIES (PTES) and TRACKING MAMMALS PARTNERSHIP (2011). Mammals on roads survey 2011. (Accessed at in 2012).

PERRY, R (1978). Wildlife in Britain and Ireland. London.

PERRY, R (1946). A naturalist on Lindisfarne. London.

PERRY, R (1981). Mountain wildlife. London.

PIERTNEY, S B, STEWART, W A, LAMBIN, X, TELFER, S, AARS, J and DALLAS, J F (2005). Phylogeographic structure and postglacial evolutionary history of Water Voles (Arvicola terrestris) in the United Kingdom. Molecular ecology 14 (5), 1435-44.

PITT, F (1946). Friends in fur and feather. London.

POWELL, R A (1979). Mustelid spacing patterns variations on the theme by Mustela. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 50, 153-163.

PRAVETTONI, R and UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMME (UNEP)/GRID-ARENDAL (2011). Nathusius’ Pipistrelle distribution and migration. (Accessed at in 2012).

PRINGLE HUGHES, G (1898). Notes on the Red Deer, Cervus Elaphus, Linn. Geological magazine, decade IV 5 (405), 119.

PRIOR, R (1995). The Roe Deer, conservation of a native species. Shrewsbury.

RABY CASTLE WEBSITE. (URL: accessed 2012).

RACKHAM, O (1986). The history of the countryside. London.

RAINE, J (1852). The history and antiquities of North Durham. London.

RAINE, J (1844). The Durham household book; or, the accounts of the bursar of the Monastery of Durham. Surtees Society 18. Durham.

RAINE, J (editor) (1880). Dialogi Laurentii Dunelmensis monachi ac prioris. Surtees Society 70. Durham.

RAISTRICK, A (1933). Excavation of a cave at Bishop Middleham, Durham. Archaeologia aeliana 4th series 10, 112-122.


REID, J B, EVANS, P G H and NORTHRIDGE, S P (2003). Atlas of cetacean distribution in northwest European waters. Peterborough.

REIJNDERS, P J H (1981). Management and conservation of the Harbour Seal, Phoca vitulina, population in the International Wadden Sea area. Biological conservation 19, 213-221.

REVELL, H (2008). Press report 24 January 2008. (Accessed at in 2012).

REYNOLDS, S H (1909). A monograph of British Pleistocene mammalia. Volume II. London.

RHEA, N (1985). Portrait of the North York Moors. London.

RICHARDSON, C (1922). Hunting in many countries. London.

RICHARDSON, P (2000). Distribution atlas of bats in Britain and Ireland 1980-1999. London.

RIVERS, N M, BUTLIN, R K and ALTRINGHAM, J D (2006). Autumn swarming behaviour of Natterer’s bats in the UK: Population size, catchment area and dispersal. Biological conservation 127 (2), 215-226.

ROGERS, S and STOCKS, R (2001). North Sea fish and fisheries: technical report produced for Strategic Environmental Assessment – SEA2. (Accessed at in 2012).

ROPE, G T (1885). On the range of the Dormouse in England and Wales. The Zoologist 9, 201-213.

ROPER, T J (2010). Badger. UK.

ROSS, R (1952). Diatoms from Neasham late-glacial deposits. New Phytologist 51, 378-381.

ROSSITER, B N (1998). Mammal and Red Kite bounties in Corbridge in the 17th and 18th centuries. Vasculum 83, 1-10.

ROSSITER, B N (1999). Northumberland’s birds in the 18th and early 19th centuries: the contribution of John Wallis (1714-1793). Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria 59, 93-136.

ROWLEY-CONWY, P, ALBARELLA, U and DOBNEY, K (2012). Distinguishing Wild Boar from domestic pigs in Prehistory: a review of approaches and recent results. Journal of world prehistory 25 (1), 1-44.

RUSS, J (2012). British bat calls. A guide to species identification. Exeter.

RUSS, J M, HUTSON, A M, MONTGOMERY W I, RACEY, P A and SPEAKMAN, J R (2001). The status of Nathusius’ pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii Keyserling and Blasius, 1839) in the British Isles. Journal of zoology 254, 91-100.

RUSS, J, HAYSOM, K and WEMBRIDGE, D (2006). Bats and roadside mammals survey 2006. London.

RUSSO, D (2002). Elevation affects the distribution of the two sexes in Daubenton’s Bats Myotis daubentonii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Italy. Mammalia 66, 543-551.

SANTOS, M B, PIERCE, G J, ROSS, H M, REID, R J and WILSON, B (1994). Diets of small cetaceans from the Scottish coast.

SCHAMA, S (2002). A history of Britain. The fate of empire 1776-2000. London.

SCHLOETH, R (1980). Freilandbeobachtungen an der Wasserspitzmaus, Neomys fodiens (Pennant, 1771) im Schweizerischen Nationalpark. Revue Suisse Zoologie, 87, 937-939.

SCHOBER, W and GRIMMBERGER, E (1989). A guide to bats of Britain and Europe. UK.

SCHOFIELD, H and GREENAWAY, F (2002). A guide to the identification of pipistrelle bats. (Accessed at in 2012).

SCOTT, R (2012). Atlas of Highland land mammals.

SEA MAMMAL RESEARCH UNIT (SMRU) (2011). Scientific advice on matters related to the management of seal populations. (Accessed at in 2012).

SEAL CONSERVATION SOCIETY (SCS) (2012). Grey Seal. (Accessed at on 18 July, 2012).

SEAL CONSERVATION SOCIETY (SCS) (2012). Harbour Seal. (Accessed at on 5 January, 2012).

SELBY, P J (1841). Observations on the great seal of the Farn Islands showing it to be Halichoerus griseus, Nilss. and not Phoca barbata. Annals and magazine of natural history 6, 462-466.

SENIOR, P, BUTLIN, R K and ALTRINGHAM, J D (2005). Sex and segregation in temperate bats. Proceedings of The Royal Society 272, 2467-2473.

SHEAIL, J (1972). Rabbits and their history. Newton Abbot.

SHIRIHAI, H and JARRETT, B (2006). A field guide to the marine mammals of the world. London.

SHIRLEY, M D F, ARMITAGE, V L, BARDEN, T L, GOUGH, M, LURZ, P W W, OATWAY, D E, SOUTH, A B and RUSHTON, S P (2001). Assessing the impact of a music festival on the emergence behaviour of a breeding colony of Daubenton’s Bats (Myotis daubentonii). Journal of zoology 254, 367-373.

SHORTEN, M (1962). Red squirrels. Animals of Britain 6. London.

SHORTEN, M (1962a). Grey Squirrels. Animals of Britain 5. London.

SHORTEN, M (1962b). Squirrels. Their biology and control. Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food, Bulletin 184. London.

SIMMS, C (1973). Pine Marten. York.

SIMMS, C (1974). Cave research at Teesdale Cave 1878-1971. Postglacial fauna from Upper Teesdale. Yorkshire Philosophical Society Annual report.

SLAUGHTER, M (2009). A strategic plan to facilitate water vole (Arvicola terrestris) dispersal in Hartlepool and the borders of North Stockton by determining extant source-sink populations. MSc Thesis, University of Sunderland.

SMALL CETACEANS IN THE EUROPEAN ATLANTIC AND NORTH SEA (SCANS) II (2008). Small cetaceans in the European Atlantic and North Sea. Final report submitted to the European Commission under project LIFE04NAT/GB/000245. St Andrews, Fife.

SMITH, J (2005). Plan for the Management of Feral Goats in the North Cheviots Northumberland National Park. Unpublished report for Northumberland National Park Authority by WildWorks Ecology.

SMITH, J E and BULLOCK, D J (1993). Phenotypic characters, conservation and management of the Feral Goat in northern England and southern Scotland. Unpublished report for the Rare Breeds Survival Trust, Stoneleigh.

SMITH, P G and RACEY, P A (2002). Habitat management for Natterer’s Bat. Mammals Trust UK report. London.

SMURTHWAITE, R (2006). Diet and heavy metal uptake by two top predator species in the Tees estuary. PhD. Thesis, University of Durham.

ST QUINTIN (1914). Country Life. 17 October 1914, 532.

STANSFIELD, G (1966). Parti-coloured Bat Vespertilio murinus L. from a North Sea drilling rig. Journal of zoology 150, 491-492.

STEBBINGS, R E (1968). Measurements, composition and behaviour of the bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus. Journal of zoology 156, 15-33.

STEEL, D (2011). Grey Seal report in Birds on the Farne Islands 2010. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria 71, 84-85.

STEEL, D (2012). Grey Seal report in Birds on the Farne Islands 2011. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria 72, 80-81.

STEEL, D (2009). Mammal report in Birds on the Farne Islands 2008. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria 69 (2).

STEHLI, G and BROHMER, P (1965). The young specialist looks at … Animals. London.

STEPHENS, M N (1957). The Otter report. The natural history of the otter. London.

STEPHENS, P S T (1907). Sport ancient and modern. In PAGE W (editor) The Victoria History of the County of Durham 2.

STEWARD, J W (1969). The tailed amphibians of Europe. Newton Abbot.

STEWART, D (1997). Red Squirrel conservation past and present in GURNELL, J and LURZ, P W W (editors) The conservation of Red Squirrels Sciurus vulgaris. London.

STOCKILL, J (2006). Fishermen assess the abundance of whales, dolphins and porpoises. School science review 88, 67-73.

STRACHAN, C, JEFFERIES, D J, BARRETO, G R, MACDONALD, D W, and STRACHAN, R (1998). The rapid impact of resident American Mink on Water Voles: case studies in lowland England in DUNSTONE, N and GORMON, M L (editors) Behaviour and ecology of riparian mammals. Cambridge.

STRACHAN, C, STRACHAN, R and JEFFERIES, D J (2000). Preliminary report on the changes in the Water Vole population of Britain as shown by the national surveys of 1989-1990 and 1996-1998. London.

STRACHAN, C, STRACHAN, R and JEFFERIES, D J (2003). The Water Vole and Mink survey of England, Scotland and Wales 1996-1998. Oxford.

STRACHAN, R (1986). Dusk roosting Noctules. Durham Bat Group report 1986, 32-33.

STRACHAN, R and JEFFERIES, D J (1993). The Water Vole Arvicola terrestris in Britain 1989-1990: its distribution and changing status. London.

STRONG, K (1945). Vasculum 31.

STUART, A J (1986). Pleistocene occurrences of Hippopotamus in Britain. Quartärpaläontologie 6, 209-218.

SURTEES, R (1823). History and antiquities of the county palatine of Durham. Volume 3. London.

SUTCLIFFE, A J (1959). The Hippopotamus in Britain. Bulletin of the Mammal Society of the British Isles 11, 36-40.

SUTCLIFFE, A J (1985). On the track of Ice Age mammals. London.

SWIFT, S M (1998). Long-eared Bats. London.

SWIFT, S M (2001). Bat species in Scotland. Report to Scottish Natural Heritage.

SWIFT, S M, RACEY, P A and AVERY, M I (1985). Feeding ecology of Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) during pregnancy and lactation II. Diet. Journal of animal ecology 54 (2), 17-225.

SWIFT, S, BOAG, B, ARMSTRONG, J and ARMSTRONG, S (2001). Relative abundance of 45 and 55kHz Pipistrelle bats in Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire. Report to Scottish Natural Heritage.

TAIT, J (1997). The journal of the Northern Mystery Animals Group. 1 (4). Newsletter.

TAPPER, S (1992). Game heritage. An ecological review from shooting and game keeping records. Fordingbridge.

TAYLOR, I (1994). Barn Owls: predator – prey relationships and conservation. Cambridge.

TEGNER, H (1954). The white foxes of Gorfenletch. London.

TEGNER, H (1955). The past and present distribution of the Roe Deer in Northumberland. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne 11 (7).

TEGNER, H (1961). Beasts of the north country. London.

TEGNER, H (1969). Wild hares. London.

TEGNER, H (1972). Natural history in Northumberland and Durham. Newcastle upon Tyne.

TEMPERLEY, G (1953). The past and present status of squirrels in Northumberland and Durham. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria 10, 153.

THOMPSON, D and DUCK, C (2008). Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast European Marine Site: Grey Seal population status. Report to Natural England: 20100902-RFQ.

THOMPSON, D and HÄRKÖNEN, T (2008). Phoca vitulina in IUCN (2011). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. (Accessed at in 2012).

THOMPSON, H V (1968). British wild Mink. Annals of applied biology.61, 345-349.

THULIN, C G (2003). The distribution of Mountain Hares, Lepus timidus, in Europe: a challenge from Brown Hare L. europaeus? Mammal review 33, 29-42.

TOULMIN, S (editor) (1907). The Itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-1543. London.

TRECHMANN, C T (1920). On a deposit of interglacial loess and some transported preglacial freshwater clays on the Durham coast. Quarterly journal of the Geological Society of London 75, 173-203.

TRECHMANN, C T (1939a). A Rhinoceros bone from Brierton, near West Hartlepool. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 24, 99-100.

TRECHMANN, C T (1939b). A skeleton of Elk (Cervus alces) from Neasham near Darlington. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 24, 100-102.

TREES FOR LIFE. (URL: accessed 22 July 2012).

TROUT, R C, CHASEY, D and SHARP, G (1997). Seroepidemiology of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in wild Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the United Kingdom. Journal of zoology 243 (4), 846-853.


TURNBULL, W (1896). Recollections of an otter hunter. Jarrow.

TWIGG, G (1961). Infestations of the Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus) in drift mines of the British Isles. Journal of hygiene 59, 271.

TWIGG, G (1975). The Brown Rat. London.

TWIGG, G I (1993) in Morris, P A (editor). A red data book for British Mammals. London.

TWIGG, G I (1992). The Black Rat Rattus rattus in the United Kingdom in 1989. Mammal review 22, 33-42.

VAUGHAN, N, JONES, G and HARRIS, S (1997). Habitat use by bats (Chiroptera) assessed by means of a broad-band acoustic method. Journal of applied ecology 34, 716-730.

VESEY-FITZGERALD, B (1943). British game. London.

VISSCHER, P M, SMITH, D, HALL, S J G and WILLIAMS, J A (2001). A viable herd of genetically uniform cattle. Nature 409, 303.

WADDINGTON, C, BAILEY, G N and MILNER, N J (2003). A Mesolithic settlement site at Howick, Northumberland: a preliminary report. Archaeologia aeliana 5th series 32, 1-12.

WALKER, D and CRESSWELL, G (2008). Whales and dolphins of the European Atlantic. New Jersey, USA.

WALLIS, J (1789). The natural history and antiquities of Northumberland and of so much of the County of Durham, as lies between the Rivers Tyne and Tweed; commonly called North Bishoprick. London.

WARD, A I (2005). Expanding ranges of wild and feral deer in Great Britain. Mammal review 35, 165-173.

WARD, A, ETHERINGTON, T, and EWALD, J (2008). Five years of change. Deer 14, 17-20.

WARDAUGH, A A (1992). Bats and their roosts in Cleveland and north-east Yorkshire. The Naturalist 117, 99-108.

WARDHAUGH, A A (1994). Bats and their roosts in Cleveland. Cleveland Naturalists proceedings.

WARREN, R D, WATERS, D A, ALTRINGHAM, J D and BULLOCK, D J (2000). The distribution of Daubenton’s Bats (Myotis daubentonii) and Pipistrelle Bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) (Vespertilionidae) in relation to small-scale variation in riverine habitat. Biological conservation 92, 85-91.

WATSON, L (1981). Whales of the world. London.

WATT, B (1915). The Field (12th June 1915) No. 1044.

WATTS, V (2002). A dictionary of County Durham place names. Nottingham.

WAUGHMAN, M, DONALDSON, M D, INNES, J and TOOLEY, M (editors) (2005). Archaeology and environment of submerged landscapes in Hartlepool Bay, England. Tees Archaeology Monograph Series 2.

WAUTERS, L, LURZ, P W W and GURNELL, J (2002). Interspecific effects of Grey Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) on the space use and population demography of Red Squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in conifer plantations. Ecological research 15, 271.

WEBB, Z (2011). Water Vole habitat suitability study. MSc Thesis, University of Newcastle.

WEMBRIDGE, D (2011). The state of Britain’s hedgehogs.

WHITEHEAD, G K (1953). The ancient white cattle of Britain and their descendants. London.

WHITEHEAD, G K (1964). The deer of Great Britain and Ireland. London.

WHITEHEAD, G K (1972). The wild goats of Great Britain and Ireland. London.

WHITEHEAD, G K (1980). Hunting and stalking deer in Britain and Ireland through the ages. London.

WILKIN, B (1979). The Otter in Northumberland. Roebuck 28.

WILSON, B, HAMMOND, P S, and THOMPSON, P M (1999). Estimating size and assessing trends in a coastal Bottlenose Dolphin population. Ecological applications 9, 288–300.

WILSON, C (1858). Notes on the prior existence of the Castor fiber in Scotland. History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 4, 76-86.

WILSON, S C (1994). The Tees seals programme monitoring report no.5 (1989 – 93).

WOODROFFE, G L, LAWTON, J H and DAVIDSON, W L (1990). The impact of feral Mink Mustela vison on Water Voles Arvicola terrestris in the North Yorkshire Moors National Park. Biological conservation 51, 49-62.

WOODS, M (1995). The Badger. Southampton.

WOODS, R (2012). Tees seals research programme monitoring report no.23 (1989-2011).

YALDEN, D (1999). The history of British Mammals. London.

YALDEN, D W (1977). The identification of remains in owl pellets. An occasional publication of the Mammal Society. London.

YALDEN, D W (1986). Neolithic bats from Dowel Cave Derbyshire. Journal of zoology (A) 210, 616-9.

YELLOWLEY, W (1886). The Marten in Northumberland. The Naturalist: a monthly journal of natural history for the north of England. London.

YOUNG, R P, DAVISON, J, TREWBY, I D, WILSON, G J, DELAHAY, R J and DONCASTER, C P (2006). Abundance of Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in relation to the density and distribution of Badgers (Meles meles). Journal of zoology 269, 349-356.

YOUNGER, D A (1994). The small mammals from the forecourt granary and the south west fort ditch in BIDWELL P and SPEAK, S (editors) Excavations at South Shields Roman Fort. Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne monograph 4.

ZERA, S (2004). Nyctalus leisleri. (Accessed at in 2012).